1) Pole to pole: Large-scale change and variability in sea ice and climate, including:
regional to hemispheric response, teleconnections, attribution of change (including large-scale atmospheric and oceanic circulation changes and feedback mechanisms), and possible extreme events.
2) Seymour Laxon & Katharine Giles celebration session: Advances in sea-ice analysis using remotely-sensed data, including:
hemispheric & global assessment, sea-ice thickness and volume, algorithm development & validation, accuracy of retrieved parameters, multi-sensor synergies, new technologies.
3) Advances in instrumentation and observation methods, including:
non-destructive observations, autonomous observatories (including underwater & aerial platforms), new analytical methods.
4) The challenge of melding sea-ice modelling with observations, including:
sea-ice and coupled model validation, advances in numerical parameterisations, current gaps, translating observations into models, IPCC-AR5 ensemble synthesis.
5) A new regime for sea-ice growth and decay?, including:
New observations of sea-ice growth & decay processes and of the characteristics of the sea-ice matrix, including the contribution of snow to sea-ice formation & decay (e.g., snow–ice & melt-pond formation), micro-physical properties.
6) Snow on sea ice, including:
snow thickness, density, characteristics and processes, gas exchange, surface radiation budget, and remote sensing considerations.
7) Interactions between sea-ice drift & deformation and sea-ice morphology, including:
ice kinematics, dynamics & mechanics, linkage to floe-size distribution and ice concentration, and dynamical effects on the sea-ice matrix.
8) Ocean-ice-atmosphere interactions, including:
boundary-layer processes, waves, tides, drag coefficients, synoptic scale forcing.
9) The marginal ice zone, including:
processes at the outer ice-ocean boundary, numerical and experimental advances in wave-ice interaction, wave attenuation, and floe-size modification.
10) Sea ice interaction with ice sheets, ice shelves and icebergs, including:
fast ice, polynyas, basal melt and refreeze, water-mass modification, freshwater balance, oceanic heat content, and possible linkage to ice-shelf stability.
11) The role of sea ice in ecosystems dynamics, including:
sea-ice biota, primary productivity, microorganisms, microbial food webs, trophic levels.
12) Sea-ice biogeochemical properties and processes in a world of change, including:
gas fluxes, nutrients, trace elements, carbon & oxygen cycling, brine composition and nutrients.
13) Palaeo and pre-satellite sea ice distribution, including:
historical records and observations, reconstructions from ice core records and deep-sea sediments.